Work in Hand

In classical baroque dressage, the horse first learns a new lesson without a rider's weight on its back. Besides being less strenuous for the horse, this also has the advantage of the rider being able to see what the horse is supposed to do and look like in the lesson.
Depending on the experience of both horse and rider, the following lessons can be developed in hand, either on a lungeing cavesson or on the bit:

Walk – halt – backwards
Walk – trot (or canter)
all lateral movements
Piaffe, Levade, Pesade